Hyaluronic acid

Polysaccharide with the capacity to retain up to a thousand times its volume in water. It is present in the dermis, synovial fluid and vitreous humor.

Adipocyte

Fat cell, especially present in the hypodermis.

DNA (Desoxyribonucleic Acid)

DNA is made up of units of biological building blocks called nucleotides. It contains our genetic material and our genes; the «DNA code» makes us unique. DNA contains the instructions necessary for the growth, development, survival and reproduction of an organism. These instructions are stored in the sequence of the nucleotide base pairs. Cells read this code by three bases to produce proteins essential for growth and survival. The DNA sequence containing the information necessary for the production of a protein is called a gene.

Structural data:
– DNA is a double stranded helix.
– DNA is the train – genes are groups of cars
– DNA is folded into chromosomes that are found in the nucleus of cells that organize into tissues that make up the organ.

In summary, we are the result of the interaction of our DNA and our environment.

4. Albizia Julibrissin

Tree of the fabaceae family. The extract of its bark consolidates the microvascular network and significantly reduces sagging of the eyelids.

Anadenanthera Colubrina

Tree of the fabaceae family whose bark is rich in arabinogalactans having molecular effects on cellular hydration.

Andropause

Physiological equivalent of menopause in women. It occurs between the ages of 45 and 65, and does not lead to infertility. A deficit in sex hormones including testosterone, the growth hormone and DHEA is becoming more and more marked. The skin becomes thinner and less elastic.

Arabinogalactans

Biopolymer composed of arabinose and galactose monosaccharide. It promotes hydration by improving the skin barrier as well as the absorption and retention of water.

Aquaporins

Transmembrane channels through which water molecules enter cells, thereby promoting cellular hydration.

9. Molecular Biology

Area of biology area dedicated to the study of the composition, structure, alterations and interactions of cellular molecules such as nucleic acids and proteins which carry out the biological processes essential to the functioning and maintenance of cells

Bioinformatics

Bioinformatics combines elements of biology, mathematics, engineering and computer science to analyze and interpret biological data.

Biosaccharide gum-1: complex sugar

Conditioner which acts as a lubricant on the surface of the skin, giving it a softer and smoother appearance.

Butylene glycol

Conditioner (derived from petroleum) which acts as a moisturizer and lubricant on the surface of the skin, giving it a softer and smoother appearance.

Caprylyl Glycol (1,2-Octanediol)

Alcohol derived from a fatty acid used as a humectant.

Carbomers

Hydrophilic synthetic polymers of acrylic acid used as a thickener.

Stem cell

A more or less undifferentiated cell capable of generating specialized cells by differentiation and of multiplying by division.

Centella Asiatica

Herbaceous from the apiaceae family, it notably contains asiaticosides which reduce inflammation and increase the synthesis of skin collagen.

Chelate

Stabilizing agent reducing the chemical activity of certain products. It consists of a ligand attached to one or more central metal atoms. It consists of a ligand attached to one or more central metal atoms.

Preservative

«Inactive» ingredient whose main role is to prevent the development of bacteria and fungi.

Coenzyme Q10 or CoQ10: Ubiquinol

Antioxidant coenzyme playing an important role in the mitochondria, and which topical application reduces wrinkles and sun damage.

Darutoside

Active compound of Siegesbeckia orientalis, known to stimulate the healing of lesions and the regeneration of tissues.

DHEA

DHEA or Dehydroepiandrosterone is a prohormone with controversial anti-aging properties. It decreases with age and is a precursor of male (testosterone) and female (estrogen) hormones.

DMDM Hydantoin

Chemical compound with the functions of a formaldehyde donor used as a preservative in cosmetic products. It acts against fungi, yeasts and bacteria.

Emollient

Cosmetic substance which aims to make the skin more supple, softer and smoother.

Thickener

“Inactive” ingredient added to a liquid solution to decrease its viscosity, and thus make it more solid.

Epigenetics

Epigenetics is the term for phenotypic changes in which the DNA sequence is not modified. The job of genes is to create proteins, to give the body the proteins it needs. Epigenetics affects how genes are read by cells, and then the production of relevant proteins by cells. Epigenetic modulation increases or decreases the expression of genes and their translation to proteins.

Skin erythema

Skin redness linked to inflammation or an allergy, often linked to the application of an irritant substance or a cosmetic.

Fibroblast

Skin stem cell.

Gardenia jasminoides

A shrub of the rubiaceae family native to China. Its stem cells inhibit the degradation of the molecules responsible for cell elasticity and promote the synthesis of skin collagen.

29. Glycerol

Polyhydric alcohol used as a humectant.

Glyceryl Acrylate / Acrylic Acid Copolymer

Conditioner which acts as a lubricant on the surface of the skin, giving it a softer and smoother appearance.

Moistener

A substance that absorbs water and helps retain moisture.

Hydroxyethylcellulose

Thickening agent derived from cellulose, an organic polysaccharide.

Hydroxypropyl Cyclodextrin

Synthetic stabilizing agent or derived from plants.

Iodopropynyl Butylcarbamate

Water soluble preservative.

Irritant

In cosmetics, it is a slight inflammation of the skin. Cosmetic agents are tested via the Patch Test consisting in placing the substance directly on the skin. Squares or plastic cups on which the substance is placed are then glued with adhesive tape. The agents are then classified as irritants, moderately irritants and non-irritants, based on degrees of the presence of erythema (redness related to inflammation) or edema (swelling related to inflammation). The eye irritability test is often performed by the NRU (Neural Red Uptake) method, measuring the survival rate of cells brought into contact with the test substance and the NRU according to the red color of the latter.

Intercellular junctions

Protein structures, especially transmembrane, maintaining intercellular cohesion.

Keratine

Protein formed by the keratinocytes that make up most of the epidermis of hair and nails.

Lavandula Angustifolia

Lavender whose floral water is used as a conditioner.

Lecithin

Complex lipid used as an emulsifying additive.

Malus Domestica: The Apple

Apple stem cells are powerful anti-wrinkles.

Menopause

The Stopping of menstruation and the hormonal cycle. The effects on the skin are manifold. The decrease in estrogen that comes with menopause decreases the skin elasticity. The relative excess of androgens (male hormones also produced in women) compared to estrogens leads to the appearance of impurities on the skin. Androgens can also lead to increased hair growth as well as hair loss.

N-Prolyl Palmitoyl Tripeptide-56 Acetate

Synthetic peptide strengthening the cytoskeleton and reducing wrinkles.

NRU (Neural Red Uptake)

In vitro test to determine eye irritability. It measures the survival rate of cells brought into contact with the test substance and the NRU according to the red color of the latter.

Occlusive

In cosmetics, an occlusive is a moisturizer that prevents transepidermal loss of water by forming a film.

Skin edema

Swelling of the skin linked to the inflammatory or allergenic power of a product.

Palmitoyl Tripeptide-1

Synthetic peptide increasing skin collagen and reducing wrinkles.

Palmitoyl Tetrapeptide-7

Synthetic peptide increasing skin collagen and reducing wrinkles.

Palmitoyl Tripeptide-38

Synthetic peptide reducing wrinkles and causing a lifting effect.

Patch Test

Test measuring the irritability or allergenic potential of a cosmetic product. The method involves placing the substance directly on the skin. Squares or plastic cups on which the substance is placed are then glued with adhesive tape. Measurements are made as a function of time. The agents are then classified as irritants, moderately irritants and non-irritants, based on degrees of the presence of erythema (redness related to inflammation) or edema (swelling related to inflammation).

Pentylene Glycol

Humectant.

Phenoxyethanol

Preservative agent.

Polysorbate 20

Surfactant. Reduces the tension between liquids. Reduces the tension between liquids.

Potassium sorbate

Preservative agent.

Pubmed

The benchmark search tool for scientific publications from around the world. It is organized by the National Library of Medicine in the United States.

Propanediol

Humectant.

Quercetin

Bioflavonoid of plants with great antioxidant power.

Retinol

Vitamin A derivative used topically and orally for the treatment of various skin diseases.

Solvent

Substance, liquid in cosmetics, used to dissolve other substances.

SNP

Abbreviation for «Single Nucleotide Polymorphsim». This is a common difference between the genetic code of individuals which is not considered to be a pathological mutation.

Surfactant

Substance that decreases the area of tension between two liquids.

Telomeres

Ends of chromosomes which shortening leads to cell senescence, and to the cessation of their reproduction.

67. Ubiqunone

Voir Coenzyme Q10

Skin Aging

Skin is the largest organ in the human body, with an area of almost two square meters. With age, a number of changes occur. Cells are less able to fight oxidative stress and genetic mutations accumulate. In addition, epigenetic changes take place – in other words, gene expression is deregulated. Beyond what is genetically determined, exogenous aging is caused by environmental factors such as exposure to sunlight and pollution, which can accelerate the undesirable effects of age on the appearance of the skin. The result is a gradual decrease in elasticity, hydration and skin volume, leading to the appearance of fine lines, wrinkles, and then sagging of the face and body skin.

Watson-Crick (base pair)

The corresponding or compatible base pairs, either A-T, G-C, named after the scientists who discovered the structure of DNA, Francis Crick and James Watson.

Xanthan (gum)

Thickening agent.

Yellow 5

Yellowish coloring agent used in cosmetics.

Zygomatic

Zygomatic muscles allowing you to smile.

3-O-Ethyl Ascorbic Acid

Antioxidant stable derivative of vitamin C. It reduces dark age spots linked to melanin by almost 60% by inhibiting the polymerization of the latter.