Hydration of the skin through cosmetics
Our body is made up of around 60% water. Skin contains about 20% of the body’s water. Beyond a filling function, water is important for the structure as well as the mechanical properties and interactions of the molecules that make up the skin.
Hydration and cosmetics
When it comes to applying cosmetics, there are two strategies, one is to hydrate the skin and the other to reduce dehydration.
Humectants: moisturizing lotion to maintain hydration
Moisturizing creams or serums will bring water through moistening agents which are hygroscopic compounds, retaining humidity of the air and the skin. Examples of humectants used in cosmetics are glycerin and pentethylene glycol.
Film formers: protective lotion to prevent dehydration
A cream, usually applied on the top of a serum, will produce a protective film preventing of transepidermal water loss. There are 2 types of film formers:
- Hydrophobic film formers making a lipid filter on the surface of the skin and thus slowing the evaporation of water from the epidermis. The main ones are mineral or oils or petrolatum, silicones and synthetic or natural waxes. These agents are occlusive and sometimes comedogenic.
- Hydrophilic film formers which are molecules that capture water. The best-known film formers are:
- Proteins such as collagen and elastin
- Complex carbohydrates or glycosaminoglycans such as chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid. It is interesting to note that the latter can penetrate deeper into the dermis when it is hydrolyzed.
- Synthetic polymers, in particular derived from polyvinyl alcohols.
Molecular hydration: new technologies coming from nature
Transmembrane molecules produced by the body, called aquaporins, form molecular channels that are responsible for the penetration of water molecules into the cells. Our anti-wrinkle serum contains a plant extract, which increases the genetic expression of aquaporins; the latter is particularly rich in arabinogalactans, which are hydrophilic polysaccharides.
Serums in general do not contain any inclusions, they essentially act as a vehicle for the active substances. The Age Tech serum in particular follows this rule. Its formula nevertheless uses all the other known tools in order to optimize hydration. Indeed, beyond its action on aquaporins, it contains the most effective humectants and hydrophilic film formers. In addition, it stimulates the cellular production of collagen and hyaluronic acid for deep hydration playing a key role in its rejuvenating effect.